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Messages - Geoffw

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1
Astronomy Group / Worth putting on your Christmas present list!
« on: October 11, 2018, 10:08:28 PM »





2
Astronomy Group / Re: Phases of the Moon - October 2018
« on: October 10, 2018, 06:53:08 PM »
To be honest ....... Nope!

3
Astronomy Group / Phases of the Moon - October 2018
« on: October 09, 2018, 08:13:11 PM »

4
 
 
THE SOCIETY FOR POPULAR ASTRONOMY Electronic News Bulletin No. 477 2018 October 7
Here is the latest round-up of news from the Society for Popular
Astronomy. The SPA is arguably Britain's liveliest astronomical
society, with members all over the world. We accept subscription
payments online at our secure site and can take credit and debit
cards. You can join or renew via a secure server or just see how
much we have to offer by visiting http://www.popastro.com/
 
EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM ENCOUNTERS BY LARGE PROTOPLANETS
RAS
A study simulating the final stages of terrestrial planet formation shows
that 'hit-and-run' encounters play a significant role in the acquisition of
water by large protoplanets, like those that grew into Mars and the Earth.
Four and a half billion years ago, the inner Solar System was a chaotic
place with around 50-100 protoplanets ranging in size from the Moon to Mars
that were prone to giant collisions. Bodies that formed within what is now
the orbit of Mars contained no water, as the conditions were too hot for
volatile material, like water or methane, to condense. For water to make
its way onto the developing terrestrial planets, it needed to be delivered
from outside their region via a sequence of collisions. Astronomers have
used high-resolution simulations to track the fate of water and other
materials through a series of different impact scenarios. Outcomes of
collisions could include bodies sticking together, material being lost, or
being redistributed between the two objects. The results depend on various
factors like the speed and angle of impact, the difference in mass between
the bodies and their total mass. They found that 'hit-and-run' collisions,
where the impact is off-centre and the bodies have enough speed to separate
again after the encounter, are very common. In those scenarios, tens of
percent of water can be transferred between the colliding bodies or ejected
and lost entirely. The smaller of the colliding pair is often modified down
to the core and effectively stripped of water, while the more-massive body
remains more or less unaltered. The team is now focusing on how long chains
of successive collisions affect the evolution of a disk of planetesimals and
protoplanets. Recent research shows that comets can only account for a
small fraction of the terrestrial planets' water. The great collisions
early in the Solar System's history must also be a major source. The
results strongly suggest that astronomers need to track the water in both
survivors following hit-and-run encounters. That will help to predict the
properties of planets that form as the end-product of a long sequence of
successive collisions.
 
DUST STORMS OBSERVED ON TITAN
NASA

Data from the Cassini spacecraft have revealed what appear to be giant dust
storms in equatorial regions of Saturn's moon Titan. The discovery makes
Titan the third Solar-System body, after the Earth and Mars, where dust
storms have been observed. The observation is helping scientists to
understand the fascinating and dynamic environment of Saturn's largest moon.
Titan is an intriguing world -- in ways quite similar to the Earth. In
fact, it is the only moon in the Solar System with a substantial atmosphere
and the only celestial body other than our planet where stable bodies of
surface liquid are known still to exist. There is one big difference,
though: on Earth such rivers, lakes and seas are filled with water, while
on Titan it is primarily methane and ethane that constitute the liquid
reservoirs. In that unique cycle, the hydrocarbon molecules evaporate,
condense into clouds and rain back onto the ground. The weather on Titan
varies from season to season as well, just as it does on Earth. In
particular, around the equinox -- the time when the Sun crosses Titan's
equator -- massive clouds can form in tropical regions and cause powerful
methane storms. Cassini observed such storms during several of its Titan
flybys.
When the team first observed three unusual equatorial brightenings in
infrared images taken by Cassini around the moon's 2009 northern equinox,
they thought that they might be the same kind of methane clouds; however, an
investigation revealed that they were something completely different. The
researchers were also able to rule out that the features were actually on
the surface of Titan in the form of frozen methane rain or icy lavas. Such
surface spots would have a different chemical signature and would remain
visible for much longer than the bright features in this study, which were
visible for only 11 hours to five weeks. In addition, modelling showed that
the features must be atmospheric but still close to the surface -- most
likely forming a very thin layer of tiny solid organic particles. Since
they were located right over the dune fields around Titan's equator, the
only remaining explanation was that the spots were actually clouds of dust
raised from the dunes. Organic dust is formed when organic molecules,
formed from the interaction of sunlight with methane, grow large enough to
fall to the surface. A member of the team said that, while this is the
first observation ever made of a dust storm on Titan, the finding is not
surprising. The team believes that the Huygens probe, which landed on the
surface of Titan in 2005 January, raised a small amount of organic dust upon
arrival owing to its powerful aerodynamic wake. But the near-surface wind
speeds required to raise such an amount of dust as we see in these dust
storms would have to be very strong -- about five times as strong as the
average wind speeds estimated by the Huygens measurements near the surface
and with climate models. The existence of such strong winds generating
massive dust storms implies that the underlying sand can be set in motion,
too, and that the giant dunes covering Titan's equatorial regions are still
active and continually changing. The winds could be transporting the dust
raised from the dunes across large distances, contributing to the global
cycle of organic dust on Titan and causing effects similar to those that can
be observed on the Earth and Mars.

EVIDENCE OF EARLY PLANETARY SHAKE-UP
Southwest Research Institute

Scientists have studied an unusual pair of asteroids and discovered that
their existence points to an early planetary rearrangement in the Solar
System. Those bodies, called Patroclus and Menoetius, are targets of NASA's
upcoming Lucy mission. They are around 70 miles across and orbit around one
another as they collectively circle the Sun. They constitute the only large
binary known in the population of ancient bodies referred to as the Trojan
asteroids. The two swarms of Trojans orbit at roughly the same distance
from the Sun as Jupiter, one swarm orbiting ahead of, and the other behind,
the planet. The Trojans were probably captured during a dramatic period of
dynamic instability when a skirmish between the Solar System's giant planets
-- Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune -- occurred. That shake-up pushed
Uranus and Neptune outwards, where they encountered a large primordial
population of small bodies thought to be the source of today's Kuiper Belt
objects, which orbit at the edge of the Solar System. Many small bodies of
that primordial Kuiper Belt were scattered inwards, and a few of those
became trapped as Trojan asteroids. A key issue with that Solar-System
evolution model, however, has been when it took place. The scientists
demonstrate that the very existence of the Patroclus--Menoetius pair
indicates that the dynamic instability among the giant planets must have
occurred within the first 100 million years of the Solar-System formation.
Recent models of small-body formation suggest that that type of binaries are
left-overs from the very earliest times of the Solar System, when pairs of
small bodies could form directly from a collapsing cloud of 'pebbles'.
Observations of today's Kuiper Belt show that binaries like those were quite
common in ancient times. Only a few of them now exist within the orbit of
Neptune. The question is how to interpret the survivors. Had the
instability been delayed many hundreds of millions of years, as suggested by
some Solar-System evolution models, collisions within the primordial
small-body disc would have disrupted such relatively fragile binaries,
leaving none to be captured in the Trojan population. Earlier dynamical
instabilities would have left more binaries intact, increasing the likeli-
hood that at least one would have been captured in the Trojan population.
The team created new models that show that the existence of the Patroclus--
Menoetius binary strongly indicates an earlier instability. That early
dynamical-instability model has important consequences for the terrestrial
planets, particularly regarding the origin of large impact craters on the
Moon, Mercury and Mars that formed approximately 4 billion years ago. The
impactors that made those craters are less likely to have been flung in from
the outer regions of the Solar System. That could imply that they were made
by small-body leftovers of the terrestrial-planet formation process. This
work underscores the importance of the Trojan asteroids in illuminating the
history of the Solar System. Much more will be learned about Patroclus--
Menoetius binary when NASA's Lucy mission surveys the pair in 2033, at the
conclusion of a 12-year mission to tour both Trojan swarms.
 
UNUSUAL FEATURES AROUND NEUTRON STAR
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

An unusual infrared light emission from a nearby neutron star detected by
the Hubble Space Telescope could indicate new features never before seen.
One possibility is that there is a dusty disk surrounding the neutron star;
another is that there is an energetic wind coming off the object and
slamming into gas in the interstellar space that the neutron star is
ploughing through. Although neutron stars are generally studied in radio
and high-energy emissions, such as X-rays, this study demonstrates that new
and interesting information about neutron stars can also be gained by
studying them in infrared light. The observation could help astronomers
understand better the evolution of neutron stars -- the incredibly dense
remnants after a massive star explodes as a supernova. Neutron stars are
also called pulsars because their very fast rotation (typically fractions of
a second, in this case 11 seconds) causes time-variable emission from light-
emitting regions. This particular neutron star belongs to a group of seven
nearby X-ray pulsars -- nicknamed 'the Magnificent Seven' -- that are hotter
than they ought to be considering their ages and available energy reservoir
provided by the loss of rotation energy. Astronomers observed an extended
area of infrared emissions around this neutron star -- named RX J0806.4-4123
-- the total size of which translates into about 200 astronomical units at
the assumed distance of the pulsar. This is the first neutron star in which
an extended signal has been seen only in infrared light. The researchers
suggest two possibilities that could explain the extended infrared signal
seen by Hubble. The first is that there is a disk of material -- possibly
mostly dust -- surrounding the pulsar.
Another theory is that there could be what is known as a 'fallback disk' of
material that coalesced around the neutron star after the supernova. Such a
disk would be composed of matter from the progenitor massive star. Its
subsequent interaction with the neutron star could have heated the pulsar
and slowed its rotation. If confirmed as a supernova fallback disk, this
result could change our general understanding of neutron-star evolution.
The second possible explanation for the extended infrared emission from this
neutron star is a 'pulsar wind' nebula. A pulsar wind nebula would require
the neutron star to exhibit a pulsar wind. A pulsar wind can be produced
when particles are accelerated in the electrical field that is produced by
the fast rotation of a neutron star with a strong magnetic field. As the
neutron star travels through the interstellar medium faster than the speed
of sound, a shock can form where the interstellar medium and the pulsar wind
interact. The shocked particles would then emit synchrotron radiation,
causing the extended infrared signal that we see. Typically, pulsar-wind
nebulae are seen in X-rays and an infrared-only pulsar wind nebula would be
very unusual and exciting.

NEW STAR BORN FROM STELLAR EXPLOSION
Purdue University

The explosions of supernovae can be so bright that they outshine their host
galaxies. They take months or years to fade away, and sometimes the gaseous
remains of the explosion slam into hydrogen-rich gas and temporarily become
bright again -- but could they remain luminous without any outside inter-
ference? As large stars explode, their interiors collapse down to a point
at which all their particles become neutrons. If the resulting neutron star
has a magnetic field and rotates fast enough, it may develop into a pulsar
wind nebula. That is most likely what happened to SN 2012au. We know that
supernova explosions produce such types of rapidly rotating neutron stars,
but we never saw direct evidence of it at this unique time frame. This is a
key moment when the pulsar-wind nebula is bright enough to act like a light
bulb illuminating the explosion's outer ejecta. SN 2012au was already known
to be extraordinary -- and weird -- in many ways. Although the explosion
was not bright enough to be termed a 'superluminous' supernova, it was
extremely energetic and long-lasting, and dimmed in a similarly slow light
curve. Superluminous supernovae are a hot topic in transient astronomy.
They are potential sources of gravitational waves and black holes, and
astronomers think that they might be related to other kinds of explosions,
like gamma-ray bursts and fast radio bursts. Researchers want to understand
the fundamental physics behind them, but they are difficult to observe
because they are relatively rare and happen so far away.

THERE MAY HAVE BEEN THREE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS
International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research

Two of the closest galaxies to the Milky Way -- the Large and Small
Magellanic Clouds -- may have had a third companion. New research describes
how another 'luminous' galaxy was probably engulfed by the Large Magellanic
Cloud some three to five billion years ago. Most stars in the Large
Magellanic Cloud revolve clockwise around the centre of that galaxy. But,
unusually, some stars revolve anti-clockwise. For a while, it was thought
that those stars might have come from its companion galaxy, the Small
Magellanic Cloud. Astronomers used computer modelling to simulate galaxy
mergers. What they found is that in such a merging event, you actually can
get quite strong counter-rotation after a merger takes place. That is
consistent with what we see when we actually observe the galaxies. From the
southern hemisphere the Magellanic Clouds can be seen in the night sky with
the naked eye and have been observed by ancient cultures for thousands of
years. The Large Magellanic Cloud is a relatively small 160,000 light-years
away from us, while the Small Magellanic Cloud is around 200,000 light-years
away. The finding could help to resolve a problem that has perplexed
astronomers for years -- why stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud are
generally either very old or very young. Galaxies often contain large star
clusters, which consist of many stars that are all of quite similar ages and
made in similar environments. In the Milky Way, the star clusters are all
very old, but in the Large Magellanic Cloud, there are very old clusters as
well as ones that are very young -- but nothing in between. That is known
as the 'age-gap' problem. Because in the Large Magellanic Cloud we see star
formation starting again, that could be indicative of a galaxy merger taking
place. The finding could also help to explain why the Large Magellanic
Cloud appears to have a thick disk.

RADIATION RISK FOR MARS ASTRONAUTS
ESA

Astronauts on a mission to Mars would be exposed to at least 60% of the
total radiation dose limit recommended for their career during the journey
itself to and from the planet, according to data from the ESA-Roscosmos
ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. The Trace Gas Orbiter began its scientific
mission at Mars in April, and while its primary goals are to provide the
most detailed inventory of Martian atmospheric gases to date -- including
those that might be related to active geological or biological processes --
its radiation monitor has been collecting data since launch in 2016. The
Liulin-MO dosimeter of the 'Fine-Resolution Epithermal Neutron Detector'
(FREND) provided data on the radiation doses recorded during the orbiter's
six-month interplanetary cruise to Mars, and since the spacecraft reached
orbit around the planet. On Earth, a strong magnetic field and a thick
atmosphere protect us from the unceasing bombardment of galactic cosmic
rays, fragments of atoms from outside the Solar System that travel at close
to the speed of light and are highly penetrating for biological material.
In space that has the potential to cause serious damage to people, including
radiation sickness, an increased lifetime risk for cancer, central-nervous-
system effects, and degenerative diseases, which is why ESA is researching
ways to protect astronauts on long space missions. The ExoMars measure-
ments cover a period of declining solar activity, corresponding to a high
radiation dose. Increased activity of the Sun can deflect the galactic
cosmic rays, although very large solar flares and eruptions can themselves
be dangerous to astronauts. Radiation doses accumulated by astronauts in
interplanetary space would be several hundred times larger than the doses
accumulated by people over the same time period on Earth, and several times
larger than the doses of astronauts and cosmonauts working on the Inter-
national Space Station.

IRELAND TO JOIN ESO
ESO

Irish astronomers are about to gain access to the world's most advanced
ground-based astronomical telescopes following the signature of Ireland's
Accession Agreement in Dublin. By joining ESO, Ireland adds to its
already rich astronomical history, stretching back centuries. For several
decades in the 19th century, Ireland hosted the world's largest telescope
-- the Leviathan of Parsonstown -- a 1.8-metre reflecting telescope at
Birr Castle (whose grounds are now home to I-LOFAR, port of a Europe-wide
low-frequency radio telescope). Ireland?s vibrant research community and
high-tech industrial sector have supported ESO membership for many years,
and will now gain access to a range of instrumentation and industrial
opportunities as a result of ESO membership. ESO is the foremost inter-
governmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most
productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It has 16 Member
States: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland,
Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile and
with Australia as a Strategic Partner. It operates three unique world-class
observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO
operates the Very Large Telescope and its world-leading Very Large Telescope
Interferometer as well as two survey telescopes, VISTA working in the infra-
red and the visible-light VLT Survey Telescope. ESO is also a major partner
in two facilities on Chajnantor, APEX and ALMA, the largest astronomical
project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is
building the 39-metre Extremely Large Telescope, the ELT, which will become
the world's biggest telescope.

Bulletin compiled by Clive Down
(c) 2018 The Society for Popular Astronomy
The Society for Popular Astronomy has been helping beginners in amateur
astronomy -- and more experienced observers -- for over 60 years. If you
are not a member, you may be missing something. Membership rates are
extremely reasonable, starting at just £22 a year in the UK. You will
receive our bright bi-monthly magazine Popular Astronomy, help and advice
in pursuing your hobby, the chance to hear top astronomers at our regular
meetings, and other benefits. The best news is that you can join online
right now with a credit or debit card at our lively web site:
www.popastro.com



6
Astronomy Group / The Night Sky This Month – October 2018
« on: October 03, 2018, 06:13:26 PM »
The Night Sky This Month – October 2018

A Orionid meteor. Image credit: Jeff Sullivan via Flickr.

October is generally a great month for stargazing. The Milky Way still lingers in the west along with stars that were prominent in the northern summer. The autumn stars  dominate overhead, and the northern winter stars are starting to poke above the eastern horizon. Best of all, you can get in a good night of stargazing without staying up too late. This year, the planets Jupiter, Saturn, and Mars, which have dazzled stargazers for months, are finally moving out of view for the year. There are a couple of meteor showers, the Moon twice brushes by a famous star cluster, and the planet Uranus reaches opposition in the constellation Aries. Here’s what to see in the night sky this month…

2 October. Last Quarter Moon, 09:45 UT

4 Oct. The waning crescent Moon hovers just over one degree south of the Beehive star cluster (Messier 44) in the eastern pre-dawn sky. It will be a lovely display in binoculars. This conjunction will repeat itself on October 31.

5 Oct. Since yesterday, the Moon has moved eastward along the ecliptic and now rises with the majestic constellation Leo, the Lion, just two fingerwidths south of its brightest star Regulus.

The waning crescent Moon in the eastern sky before dawn on Oct. 5, 2018.

8 Oct. The Draconid meteor shower peaks over the next few days. This meteor shower occurs each year when the Earth passes through a stream of debris left from periodic Comet Giacobini-Zinner. While it’s usually a spartan meteor shower, with just a handful of meteors visible each hour, the Draconids have flared up from time to time. In 1933 and 1946, observers reported thousands of meteors per hour, so this modest shower became a meteor storm. There was also a good show in 1988. There’s no word of a flare up this year, but if you’re out stargazing, take a look. You never know.

9 Oct. New Moon, 03:47 UT


11 Oct. Jupiter is just three finger-widths south of a slender waxing crescent Moon. The biggest planet had a splendid apparition this year, but it’s on its way out until next year. The planet spans about 32”, still bigger than Mars ever gets, but it’s too low over the horizon to offer much detail in a telescope. Still, at magnitude -1.7, Jupiter still far outshines every star in the sky.

12 Oct. From now until the end of the month, northern-hemisphere observers who have very dark sky can see the zodiacal light in the eastern sky about 90-120 minutes before sunrise in the northern hemisphere.  This whitish glowing wedge of light appears to thrust upward from the horizon.  The zodiacal light, sometimes called the “False Dawn”, is simply sunlight reflected off tiny dust particles in the inner solar system.


14 Oct. Saturn is a little less than 2 degrees south of the crescent Moon in the southwestern sky after sunset. The pair is just north of the ‘Teapot’ of Sagittarius. Like Jupiter, Saturn had a fine apparition this year. The planet has grown smaller since its opposition in late June, but you can still spy its rings in a small telescope. The planet shines at a respectable magnitude +0.6, brighter than any star in the same part of the sky. By mid-October, the planet sets by about 10 p.m., and this is the last month you can see Saturn before it sets for the year. As you look at the planet, turn also to Jupiter to the west and red-orange Mars to the east to take in one last time the fourth, fifth, and sixth most distant planets from the Sun.

16 Oct. First Quarter Moon, 18:02 UT

18 Oct. Mars is just two finger widths south of the gibbous Moon in the south. Mars put on a spectacular show this year, especially for southern observers, but the planet is quickly growing smaller and fainter. It is, however, still plenty bright enough to attract attention. As the month begins, Mars shines at magnitude -1.3, and remains the brightest object in the southern part of the sky. By the end of October, it fades to magnitude -0.6. Its apparent size drops from 16” to 12” during the month compared to a grand 24” across at opposition at the end of July. You will be challenged to see much detail on the planet with a telescope, but enjoy the spectacle of the planet fading and moving eastward each night through Capricornus.

20-22 Oct. Look for the Orionid meteor shower in the early morning hours. One of the finest of all meteor showers, the Orionids present perhaps 20-40 fast-moving meteors per hour in dark sky. The radiant of the Orionids is near the club of Orion, but you can see the meteors anywhere in the sky in both hemispheres. Just look up anywhere and start watching. Early morning, from 3 a.m. local time through dawn, is the best time to observe the shower. This year, unfortunately, the light from the waxing Moon may wash out some of the fainter meteors, especially before midnight. Like the Aquariid meteors in May, the Orionid meteors are bits of Comet Halley that hit the upper atmosphere as the Earth passes through the debris field of the comet.

The location of the planet Uranus at opposition on Oct. 23-24. The planet lies in southwestern Aries, just east of the star Omicron Piscium (Torcularis Septentrionalis

23-24 Oct. The planet Uranus reaches opposition today, rising in the east as the Sun sets in the west. The planet is just 3.7″ across in a telescope and it shines at magnitude 5.7, bright enough to see without optics if you know where to look. Through the end of the month, you’ll get the best view of the planet around midnight.  Uranus lies in the southwestern part of the constellation Aries just east of the star Omicron Piscium (Torcularis Septentrionalis).

24 Oct. Full Moon, 16:45 UT

26 Oct. Looking for Venus? Don’t bother. Today, the planet reaches inferior conjunction, the point at which it’s on the same side of the Sun as Earth and lost in the Sun’s glare. Moving forward, the planet will slowly emerge in the pre-dawn sky and become the “Morning Star” for the next several months.

26 Oct. Look for the waning gibbous Moon next to the Hyades star cluster in the constellation Taurus in the in the late evening hours through dawn.

SOURCE: https://cosmicpursuits.com/night-sky-this-month/

7
What's On in Pembrokeshire / September Pembroke Soup- a REEL success
« on: September 27, 2018, 11:54:20 AM »
September Pembroke Soup- a REEL success

Whether  it was the rainy day or the increased awareness of Pembroke Soup, but Saturday September 22nd at 12.00 to 1.30 was reeling – we saw a full hall, extra tables and chairs hastily fitted in and a real buzz of anticipation and sharing as people filled the hall.

As people paid there four pounds to come in, five large pans of homemade soup were heating and filling the hall with delicious aromas. The Coo-op had again generously supplied ample bread. And we were ready to go!

Each event sees four community groups coming along to tell us what they are doing in the community;how they are helping in the community and….. how the community might be able to help them. The event provides an opportunity for a small cash grant if funds are needed, as all of the door money is distributed amongst the groups presenting according to the silent vote made as people also choose their soup for lunch.
This time we were all treated to a colourful and vibrant display of Irish dancing from Serenfach Irish Dance club. This club started in July 2012 and meets every Thursday in the Pater Hall from 4.00 to 7.30pm. It is run by Sharron Ewings, Amanda Phillips and Bethen Ewings who teach children from the age of four years, traditional Irish dancing in a fun way. They hold regular events to show the skill they have learnt. And what skills! A group of seven youngsters aged between 7 and 15 years of age put on an amazing display. ‘They were to perform again as folks were eating soup. What a treat. One hundred and fifteen pounds was to be donated to them at the end of the morning – funds having been requested, to help with the cost of outfits and shoes for the youngsters.

They have a Facebook page serenfach irish dance or can be contacted on 07881707670.

John Lloyd presented from Pemrokeshire Scout Association. He was to tell us about a project to build coracles. He explained how in modern day scouting ( and there are some 850 Scouts aged between 61/2 to 25 years, in Pemrokeshire alone) there are a number of projects and activities in progress- all designed for specific age groups to aid  their wider education and development. One such current project is to build coracles, involving both the Scout section and the Explorer Scouts.

In the Uk there are about 18 variants of the coracle- a small single seated craft made originally of cow hide and woven willow. Today the coracles are made of canvass. Here in West Wales the Scouting Association have begun a project making  Cleddau Coracles ( one of 18 variants of coracle) an obvious choice with Pembroke Dock being on the Cleddau ! By April this year the first two were ready and launched at Gelliswick Bay and were part of a large Scout based activity event involving about 400 young people across the county. Many of these young people took the opportunity to try paddling a coracle. The project is planning to build another three this Autumn and funds are being raised for this purpose. The old traditional skills required to build coracles are being revived and  John explained his hope that some of the young people involved will learn something about the unusual craftsmanship. West Wales Maritime Heritage Museum at Hancocks Yard Fronts Street in Pembroke Dock were thanked for their support and continued use of their workshops  40 was later to be donated from Pembroke Soup.

John Roberts from Pembroke Family Gardening Group spoke and shared his passion to see the small Tenby Daffodil reintroduced into our hedgerows and fields. It is a native daffodil that used to be everywhere, but has suffered perhaps from disturbances to the hedgerows from changes in agricultural methods and from the larger flamboyant cultivated daffodils. It now seems to be limited to a few favorable areas. However this small native daffodil, which likes to be planted out and left undisturbed will reward by spreading and giving the small delicate flower in the spring. Pembroke Family Gardening donated Tenby Daffodils to youngsters who had grown sunflowers and had a supply for sale. The organization was to receive forty pounds from Pembroke Soup - funding was requested to cover the cost of the bulbs. Look out for Pembroke Family Gardening at various events this autumn, when the bulbs will be donated to school children and parents with planting and care instructions. At September’s Pembroke Soup John Roberts thanked parents and children for the enthusiastic support given to this and previous projects. John can be contacted at pembrokefamilygardening@gmail.com

Daphne Bush, chair/press officer of Pembroke Ladies Lifeboat Guild spoke describing briefly that in 1824, Sir William Hilary decided to form a coastal rescue service which was later to become the charity named the Royal  National Lifeboat Institution.

Angle had its first Lifeboat Station in 1868, now having celebrated its 150th Anniversary. The ladies Lifeboat Guild was founded in 1949 and next year will celebrate 70 years of fundraising in this small locality, stretching outwards from Angle Bay. Daphne thanked the many people present, whose support would have enabled the longevity of Guild fundraising in the area during this time.
It is interesting to know that in the UK and Republic of Ireland we are over 23000 volunteer fundraisers in total. There are 238 Lifeboat Stations with 4966 volunteer crew in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Lifeboats have been built at Poole headquarters for the last few years in a state of the art boat building centre, thanks to fundraising and donations. The RNLI can therefore now build, maintain, repair and service all of its boats at Poole. In addition engineers can service boats and equipment at Lifeboat Stations. The latest boat being built at Poole being the Shannon Class Lifeboat, capable of 25 knots and capable of turning in its own circle.

Fundraising also supports the seasonal Lifeguard Service which has operated in Pembrokeshire since 2007. In the 2018 season 13 beaches were covered from Whitesands to Pendine. Newgale, in the North. It has 3 Lifeguard station points. The Lifeguard service continues around the coast from Pendine to  Aberavon and areas beyond. There was so much more to say about the charity. However, time was short; therefore, Daphne concluded by relaying facts regarding costs of equipment and running expenses, putting the need for continual fundraising truly into perspective. The cost of running the charity in 2017 was £176.5 million which is £483, 000 per day. Daphne later expressed gratitude for the forty pounds donated by Pembroke Soup – this could cover the cost of two pairs of special gloves for lifeboat crew.

OUR NEXT PEMBROKE SOUP IS THE CHRISTMAS SPECIAL ON SATURDAY 17TH NOVEMBER AT PEMBROKE TOWN HALL FROM 11.00 TO 2.00PM
MISSED A SPEAKER? ALL PREVIOUS SPEAKERS ARE INVITED TO HAVE A TABLE TOP ON THE DAY.




8
Astronomy Group / Harvest Moon over Pembrokeshire
« on: September 26, 2018, 10:54:41 PM »

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Problems with the Forum? / Re: Forum Updates
« on: September 24, 2018, 10:45:46 PM »
Looks OK here Colin.  As of now 24/09/2018 22.44

6866 Posts in 3293 Topics by 46 Members. Latest Member: Myles
Latest Post: "Walk Monday 1st October ..." ( Today at 04:56:16 PM )
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This includes my message this afternoon on the Walks Section regarding next weeks Monday Walk.

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U3A Walkers / Walk Monday 1st October - CHANGE OF MEETING VENUE!
« on: September 24, 2018, 04:56:16 PM »
Monday, 1st October_- Boulston

CHANGE OF MEETING VENUE!


Originally intending to meet at Haverfordwest Golf Club for registration and menu choices will now meet at the Glen, Merlins Hill, Haverfordwest SA61 1XA.

We will then share cars to Uzmaston Church for the start of this 3 mile circular walk , mainly on roads but also a few fields which may be muddy in places. Leader - Brian 10646 601056.

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